There are as many musical genre (styles of music) in the world as there are local dialects and national cuisines. AllMusic's 'genre' page provides brief introduction to many genre of music with information about the history of the style, famous composers and prominent artists, and links to examples you can stream or download. This Huffington Post article takes a look at ten more musical genre.
Australian composer, music director, and youth-arts tutor Tim Hansen has created a wonderful TED-Ed video on the basics of reading written music. If you want to go a little deeper try teoria, another fun site with tutorials on music reading, music theory, and eartraining.
Many music teachers now use the internet to supplement and enhance traditional lessons. This researched sampling of musical, youth-oriented websites is presented by MTNA, the Music Teachers National Association.
The psychological effects of playing, singing, and listening to music are a fruitful area of study for science, and the benefits to children and teens of exposure to music and music education are well documented.
If music is a language, then music theory is a description of how that language works. This remarkable site,written by a university music professor, consists of easy summaries of music theory concepts in 50 entertaining slides, from the fundamentals to quite advanced levels.
The National Endowment for the Arts is a federal agency supporting arts learning as part of America’s diverse cultural heritage. The NEA seeks to promote equal access to music and the arts in every community across America.