The topic of fake news is as old as the news industry itself—misinformation, hoaxes, propaganda, and satire have long been in existence. This guide will help you determine the kinds of fake news that exist and provide tools for how to evaluate news for its reliability and truth.
A variety of sources for news exist, and the most widely used are listed below.
There are many types of radio broadcasters, including commercial and noncommercial, that deliver news to listeners. It is common for local radio stations to exist as affiliates of larger broadcast networks.
The highest circulating print newspapers in the United States include USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and The Washington Post. Each newspaper's corresponding website has varying levels of access. Many newspapers rely on content from The Associated Press and Reuters. There is also a large number of local newspapers—more than 1,300 in the United States alone according to the Newspaper Association of America.
The largest broadcast US television news networks include NBC, CBS, ABC, and Fox. Local television news channels carry national news programs as well as local news programs. The largest US cable television news channels include C-SPAN, CNN, MSNBC, CNBC, Bloomberg Television, and Fox Business Network.
Word of Mouth
News that you hear from others by word of mouth is also a source of news!
Since its invention and widespread use, the Internet has rapidly become a major source for news. Many news sites correspond to radio, newspaper, and television networks, but some news organizations, which mostly focus on political news, only appear online such as Politico, RealClearPolitics, and The Huffington Post.
Social media is another source of news—users visit sites like Facebook and Twitter to follow and share news. For mobile use, social media sites also develop and release apps for phones or other mobile devices that users can download to access news.
Fake News is: information that cannot be verified, without sources, and possibly untrue.
While fake news can take many forms, there are several broad types.
There is fake news written for profit and then shared on social media among targeted groups of people who want to believe that it is true. The intention is for the fake news to spread without readers taking the time to properly verify it. This type of fake news is untrue news.
A news headline may read one way or state something as fact, but then the body of the article says something different. The Internet term for this type of misleading fake news is “clickbait”—headlines that catch a reader’s attention to make them click on the fake news. This type of fake news is misleading at best and untrue at worst.
Social Media Sharing
Social media’s ability to show a large number of news items in a short time means that users might not take the time to research and verify each one. These sites often rely on shares, likes, or followers who then turn news items into a popularity contest—and just because something is popular and widely-shared does not mean it’s true.
Satire news or comedy news often begins with an aspect of truth then purposefully twists it to comment on society. Satire news has the potential to be spread as though it is real news by those who do not understand its humorous nature. An example of a well-known satire website is The Onion.
Evaluate and Verify: Questions to Ask Yourself
The process and ability to be able to evaluate and separate fake news from real news is a part of media literacy and, on a broader level, information literacy. There are strategies that you can use to become a savvy judge of news especially online or when using social media. Below are three questions that you should always ask yourself when evaluating a news story.
Question 1: Who is the creator?
The first question in figuring out if a something is fake news is by looking at the individual who created it, or understanding the organization behind it. When assessing news, especially that which exists on the Internet, it is important to review the following:
Question 2: What is
The second question in determining if something is fake news is by looking at the message itself and understanding what is being communicated. Review the following:
Question 3: Why was
The third question in determining if something is fake news is by looking at why the message was created. Review the following:
It is always a good idea to verify information before you share it with others—in person or on social media. Aside from the three questions above, an additional method that works is the CRAAP test—look at the content for its currency—the timeliness of the information, relevance—the importance of the information to your needs, authority—the source of the information, accuracy—the reliability and truthfulness of the information, and purpose—the reason the information exists.
Need a Guide to Spot Fake News? Check out IFLA’s guide.
Several educational and non-profit institutions organize around the principles of media literacy and have additional resources available to assist you. Links to some of these organizations including a brief description from their website are below.
Center for Media Literacy (CML)
"An educational organization dedicated to promoting and supporting media literacy education as a framework for accessing, analyzing, evaluating, creating, and participating with media content."
Media Literacy Now
"Provides policy and advocacy information, expertise, and resources to develop state laws to implement media literacy education in schools."
National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE)
“Dedicated to media literacy as a basic life skill for the 21st century, helping individuals of all ages develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators, and active citizens.”
The News Literacy Project (NLP)
"A nonpartisan national education nonprofit that works with educators and journalists to teach middle school and high school students how to sort fact from fiction in the digital age."
The Poynter Institute
“Since its founding in 1975, The Poynter Institute has had one goal: to elevate journalism. Poynter launched the International Fact-Checking Network and each year, Poynter trains thousands of journalists around the world.”
As Maryland's State Library Resource Center, the Enoch Pratt Free Library has a broad collection of resources for evaluating and verifying sources of information. If you need additional assistance please contact us.